LONDON — When mysterious operatives lured two cybersecurity researchers to conferences at luxurious resorts over the previous two months, it was an obvious bid to discredit their analysis about an Israeli firm that makes smartphone hacking expertise utilized by some governments to spy on their residents. The Related Press has now realized of comparable undercover efforts concentrating on a minimum of 4 different people who’ve raised questions on using the Israeli agency’s spyware and adware.

The 4 others focused by operatives embrace three attorneys concerned in associated lawsuits in Israel and Cyprus alleging that the corporate, the NSO Group, bought its spyware and adware to governments with questionable human rights data. The fourth is a London-based journalist who has lined the litigation. Two of them — the journalist and a Cyprus-based lawyer — had been secretly recorded assembly the undercover operatives; footage of them was broadcast on Israeli tv simply because the AP was getting ready to publish this story.

All six of the individuals who had been focused mentioned they imagine the operatives had been a part of a coordinated effort to discredit them.

“There’s any person who’s actually excited about sabotaging the case,” mentioned one of many targets, Mazen Masri, who teaches at Metropolis College, London and is advising the plaintiffs’ legal professional within the case in Israel.

Masri mentioned the operatives had been “searching for dust and irrelevant details about folks concerned.”

The small print of those covert efforts supply a glimpse into the generally shadowy world of personal investigators, which incorporates some operatives who transcend gathering info and as an alternative act as provocateurs. The targets advised the AP that the covert brokers tried to goad them into making racist and anti-Israel remarks or revealing delicate details about their work in reference to the lawsuits.

NSO has beforehand mentioned it has nothing to do with the undercover efforts “both instantly or not directly.” It didn’t return repeated messages asking concerning the new targets recognized by the AP. American personal fairness agency Francisco Companions, which owns NSO, didn’t return a message from the AP looking for remark.

The undercover operatives’ actions may by no means have been made public had it not been for 2 researchers who work at Citizen Lab, an web watchdog group that’s based mostly out of the College of Toronto’s Munk Faculty.

In December, one of many researchers, John Scott-Railton, realized {that a} colleague had been tricked into assembly an operative at a Toronto lodge, then questioned about his work on NSO. When a second operative calling himself Michel Lambert approached Scott-Railton to rearrange the same assembly on the Peninsula Resort in New York, Scott-Railton devised a sting operation, inviting AP journalists to interrupt the lunch and videotape the encounter.

The story drew vast consideration in Israel. Inside days, Israeli investigative tv present Uvda and The New York Occasions recognized Lambert as Aharon Almog-Assouline, a former Israeli safety official dwelling within the plush Tel Aviv suburb of Ramat Hasharon.

By then, Scott-Railton and the AP had decided the undercover efforts went properly past Citizen Lab.

Inside hours of the story’s publication, Masri wrote to the AP to say that he and Alaa Mahajna, who’s pursuing the lawsuit towards NSO in Israel, had spent weeks parrying presents from two wealthy-sounding executives who had contacted them with profitable presents of labor and insistent requests to satisfy in London.

“We had been on our guard and didn’t take the bait,” Masri wrote.

Masri’s revelation prompted a flurry of messages to others tied to litigation involving NSO. Masri and Scott-Railton say they found that Christiana Markou, a lawyer representing plaintiffs in a associated lawsuit towards NSO-affiliated firms in Cyprus, had been flown to London for a wierd assembly with somebody who claimed to be a Hong Kong-based investor. Across the identical time, Masri came upon {that a} journalist who had written about NSO was additionally invited to a London lodge — twice — and questioned about his reporting.

“Issues are getting extra fascinating,” Masri wrote because the episodes emerged.


Like Almog-Assouline, the undercover operative the AP uncovered in New York, the covert brokers who pursued the attorneys made a string of operational errors.

The try to ensnare Alaa Mahajna, the lead lawyer within the Israeli swimsuit, was a working example.

On Nov. 26 he heard from a person who mentioned his title was Marwan Al Haj and described himself as a accomplice at a Swedish wealth administration agency referred to as Lyndon Companions. Al Haj supplied Mahajna an intriguing proposition. Al Haj mentioned one in every of his shoppers, an ultra-rich particular person with household ties to the Center East, wanted authorized help recovering household land seized by Jewish settlers following the 1967 Arab-Israeli struggle.

“I imagine chances are you’ll be match for this difficult job,” Al Haj wrote.

The request made sense. As a human rights lawyer based mostly in Jerusalem, Mahajna has defended Palestinian activists and others on the receiving finish of the Israeli authorities’s ire. However Mahajna turned suspicious as he tried to be taught extra concerning the case. Al Haj was cagey about his consumer and appeared unwilling to offer any paperwork, Mahajna advised the AP.

“Not even the fundamental stuff,” Mahajna mentioned. “Normally folks flood you with paperwork and tales.”

Mahajna mentioned he was unsettled when Al Haj abruptly supplied him an all-expenses-paid journey to London; nobody had even requested him whether or not the case had any hope of success.

“Sooner or later it was abundantly clear that this isn’t a bona fide method,” Mahajna mentioned.

Ten days later, Masri, the authorized adviser within the Israeli lawsuit, acquired an electronic mail providing him a spot on the advisory board of a Zurich-based firm referred to as APOL Consulting.

Masri turned skeptical after he checked out the corporate’s web site. Consulting corporations usually commerce on their workers’ intelligence and ability, so Masri anticipated the corporate’s website to prominently show the names, headshots and {qualifications} of its employees.

“Right here there wasn’t even a reputation of 1 human,” he mentioned.

When Masri turned down the place on APOL’s board, the consultant who’d contacted him — a person who referred to as himself Cristian Ortega — pressed Masri to see him in London anyway.

“I’d take into account it a privilege to have an opportunity to satisfy you in individual for a pleasant chat,” Ortega mentioned in a Jan. 7 electronic mail. “No strings connected after all.”

Masri mentioned that by then he and Mahajna had come to imagine that Ortega and Al Haj had been fictions and that their firms had been imaginary.

However they didn’t but know the way widespread the covert operations had been.


The undercover brokers acquired a little bit additional with Christiana Markou, the lawyer who’s pursuing the Cypriot case towards NSO-affiliated entities.

Her lawsuit, like Mahajna’s, attracts closely on experiences by Citizen Lab that discovered that NSO spyware and adware had been used to interrupt into the telephones of the Mexican activists and journalists who’re the plaintiffs in each instances.

Markou advised the AP she was approached over electronic mail Dec. 21 by a person who introduced himself as Olivier Duffet, a accomplice at Hong Kong-based ENE Investments.

Duffet was ostensibly excited about inviting Markou — a number one knowledge safety and privateness lawyer in Cyprus — to present a lecture at a convention. Markou mentioned she proposed discussing the lecture over Skype, however he insisted on an in-person assembly in London, finally flying her out, placing her up in a flowery lodge and chatting for a little bit greater than an hour.

Many of the dialogue revolved across the proposed lecture — however then Duffet abruptly pivoted to the NSO case, asking her whether or not she felt the lawsuit was winnable and who was funding it.

Markou mentioned she “gave both incorrect solutions or expressly refused to reply” as a result of she discovered his questions suspicious.

One more goal, Eyad Hamid, a London-based journalist who wrote a narrative about NSO, mentioned he was additionally invited to a London lodge on two separate events to debate his protection of the Israeli firm.

The purported firm used within the operation concentrating on him was Mertens-Giraud Companions Administration, which was described as a Brussels-based wealth administration agency.

Neither MGP — nor any of the opposite firms — really existed. The AP’s searches of the Orbis database of some 300 million firms, native company registries and trademark repositories turned up no hint of a Swiss agency referred to as APOL, a Swedish firm referred to as Lyndon companions, a Belgian firm referred to as Mertens-Giraud or a Hong Kong-based agency named ENE Investments. Native telephone books didn’t carry listings for a Zurich-based man named Cristian Ortega, a Hong Kong-based man named Olivier Duffet or anybody in Sweden bearing the title Marwan Al Haj.

There was no trace of APOL when the AP visited its supposed workplace not removed from Zurich’s central practice station; tenants mentioned they’d by no means heard of the corporate. It was the identical story in Hong Kong; a administration consultant on the Central Constructing, the place ENE Investments was supposedly positioned, mentioned he didn’t know something concerning the firm. An AP journalist wasn’t in a position to converse to anybody at Mertens-Giraud’s alleged workplace on Brussels’ Rue des Poissoniers; your entire constructing was boarded up for renovations.

On the fashionable workplace block in downtown Stockholm the place Lyndon Companions claimed to have its headquarters, service supervisor Elias Broberger mentioned he might discover no hint of the wealth administration agency.

“It says they’re positioned right here,” Broberger mentioned as he examined Lyndon Companions’ professional-looking web site. “However we don’t have them in any of our methods: not the reserving system; not the member system. We don’t invoice them; they don’t invoice us.

“I can’t discover them.”


Who employed the undercover brokers stays unclear, however their operational and digital fingerprints counsel they’re linked.

The six operatives all started approaching their targets across the identical time with individually tailor-made pitches. Their bogus web sites adopted the identical patterns; all of them had been hosted on Namecheap and plenty of had been purchased at public sale from GoDaddy and used the Israeli net design platform Wix. The formatting of the web sites was related; in a minimum of two situations — MGP and Lyndon Companions — it was similar. Even the operatives’ electronic mail signatures had been the identical — consisting of three neatly packed, colourful traces consisting of a telephone quantity, net deal with and electronic mail.

The operatives’ LinkedIn pages had been related, too, that includes males in sun shades shot from a distance, dealing with away from the digital camera, or at uncommon angles — a tactic generally used to frustrate facial recognition algorithms.

Regardless of the indications that the undercover brokers are all linked, there is no such thing as a conclusive proof who they could work for. An Israeli tv channel, Channel 12, broadcast a report on Saturday claiming that an Israeli personal investigation agency, Black Dice, had been investigating points across the lawsuits towards NSO. The TV channel confirmed secretly shot footage of the Cypriot lawyer, Markou, and the London journalist, Hamid, which matched the pair’s description of their encounters with undercover brokers.

The TV phase was important of the attorneys suing NSO, and quoted firm cofounder Shalev Hulio accusing Markou and her colleagues of pursuing the lawsuits as a “PR train.”

NSO has beforehand denied hiring Black Dice, and Black Dice in a letter despatched final month to the AP mentioned it was not concerned within the effort to ensnare researchers at Citizen Lab. “Black Dice had nothing to do with these alleged occasions,” the letter mentioned, including that nobody performing on the corporate’s behalf did both.

Black Dice does have a attainable tie to Almog-Assouline, the person who held the lodge assembly about NSO in New York. Throughout a long-running Canadian authorized battle between two personal fairness corporations — Catalyst Capital and West Face Capital — one man caught up within the litigation mentioned he acknowledged Almog-Assouline as a result of he’d been approached by the identical operative below a special identification a number of years in the past.

“I acknowledged the person, all the way down to the accent and the anecdotes,” mentioned the person, who spoke on situation of anonymity for worry of retaliation.

In court docket filings, Black Dice has acknowledged dispatching brokers to satisfy with “numerous people” concerned within the personal fairness corporations’ feud. But it surely’s unclear if different investigations corporations may additionally have performed work related to the 2 firms’ authorized battle.

Black Dice didn’t reply to repeated questions on whether or not it had ever employed Almog-Assouline. The agency beforehand drew worldwide opprobrium for its unrelated work defending the popularity of disgraced Hollywood mogul Harvey Weinstein.

Almog-Assouline himself denied working for Black Dice when two AP reporters confronted him in New York final month.

He has refused to reply any questions since.

When an AP reporter rang the door at his penthouse in Ramat Hasharon per week in the past, a lady who recognized herself as his spouse mentioned he wasn’t residence. When the reporter adopted up with a telephone name to Almog-Assouline, he mentioned: “I’ve little interest in talking to you.”


Aron Heller in Ramat Hasharon, Israel, David Keyton in Stockholm, Sweden, Jamey Keaten in Zurich, Vincent Yu in Hong Kong, Sylvain Plazy in Brussels, Josef Federman in Jerusalem and Menelaos Hadjicostis in Nicosia, Cyprus, contributed to this report.



Paperwork associated to the undercover operation:


Raphael Satter will be reached on:

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